Fluoroelastomers specially designed for extrusion of thin walled veneers and tubing for fuel hose applications
Stephen Bowers, Edward Ferber, Ronald Stevens, Christopher Grant, Eric Chauvign
Fluoroelastomers are used in automotive and small-engine fuel system seals and delivery components due to their superior resistance to aggressive fuel blends and heat. Fluoroelastomers also provide an effective barrier to permeation while remaining flexible over a wide temperature range. Consequently, many new fuel hose and tubing applications rely on fluoroelastomer inner layers to meet the increasingly stringent permeation regulations. DuPont Performance Elastomers has recently developed new polymerisation technology to produce fluoroelastomers. They are designed specifically for extruded components such as thin walled fuel hose veneers. The new fluoroelastomers provide thin walled extrudates having excellent surface quality with barrier properties capable of meeting the permeation requirements of latest automotive specifications. This paper describes the end use and processing performance of these fluoroelastomers that have been specifically designed for extrusion of thin walled fuel hose veneers.
Updated Epichlorohydrin Elastomer (ECO) with Lead Free curing system
P. Abraham, Zeon Chemicals Europe Ltd.
Epichlorohydrin elastomers are one of the speciality elastomers designed to meet heat, fuel and oil resistant requirements of the automotive and other industries. Since their introduction in the 1960's, many types of ECO elastomer have been developed and their application has been expanded in the market. The major curing system of ECO is Lead/ETU, but because of the problems of toxicity associated with Lead, Lead free curing systems have been strongly requested by the automotive and other users. In this presentation, the performance of ECO is reviewed including updated application areas, and the use of a Triazine curing system for ECO is discussed as a Lead free curing option. In addition, Triazine curing performance of Acrylic rubber containing chlorine as the cure site is discussed.
DE304: A New EPDM Grade for Elevated Temperature Dynamic Applications
Peter M. van de Ven, DSM Elastomers Europe
Michael J. Doyle, DSM Copolymer
There are increasing demands on the performance of many elastomeric components used in the automotive industry. These arise from the requirements of longer component lifetime, enhanced levels of performance, and increasing continuous operating temperatures in the engine compartment. The engine mount is a critical application where these trends have created major difficulties for the materials engineer. Natural rubber, historically the elastomer of choice, may be unsurpassed in dynamic properties, strength, and fatigue resistance but it is approaching the endurance limit with regard to higher continuous operating temperatures. Of the possible replacement elastomers, EPDM, with an appropriately designed molecular structure, is the best solution. After heat ageing at 120
The Micron under Control: Possibilities for Thermosets in Automotive
A.J.C.M. Sparidaens, Philips PMF
Philips is in 1923 gestart met zijn Plastic activiteiten onder de naam "Philite". Deze activiteiten waren destijds gericht op de productie van diverse onderdelen en behuizingen voor electrische apparaten in thermoharders. Door de komst van diverse engineering plastics is de rol van thermoharders in de electrische industrie vrijwel tot 0 gereduceerd.
Sinds enige jaren vertoond binnen de Philips' Plastics Divisie (PMF) de productie van onderdelen in thermoharders weer een stijgende lijn. Deze stijging wordt veroorzaakt door een toenemende afzet van deze thermoharders in de automotive branche t.b.v. onderdelen waaraan hoge eisen worden gesteld t.a.v. maatnauwkeurigheid, bestendigheid tegen chemicali
Engineering aspects of natural rubber: Finite element analysis and fracture mechanisms
Dr. A. Stevenson, Managing Director of the Materials Engineering Research Laboratory (MERL) UK
Natural rubber has proven to be a versatile and durable material for a wide range of engineering applications. Its main advantage over synthetic elastomers is its high tear strength and fatigue resistance for application that do not require prolonged service at elevated temperatures. Low cost is also a considerable advantage for high volume applications, although of less concern for many critical engineering components where the engineering costs outweigh the cost of materials.
Natural rubber components continue to hold an important place in non-tyre automotive components as well as the material usage in tyres. Natural rubber has also found an important niche in demanding offshore engineering components and in one recent case laminated natural rubber flexelements were installed as primary load bearing components in a deep-water offshore platform for the Norwegian sector of the North Sea, after fatigue testing up to 5000 tonnes.
The first part of this lecture will review the basic properties of natural rubber that are important for engineering applications. This will be illustrated by a number of engineering applications from the past 150 years.
In the second part of the lecture some new advances will be presented from research at MERL on finite element and fatigue life analyses and multiaxial testing.
New computer software has been developed that integrates fracture mechanics and fatigue life calculations to enable the number of service cycles to a certain depth of crack to be calculated. Current research is also underway to integrate this approach with the long term effects of chemical ageing. For many modern engineering components it is important to characterise the combined effects of loading in different directions simultaneously (eg. combined shear with compression).
CAD & CAE tools in automotive plastic part design
H. Gaalman, DSM Polymers, Development Service Centre
The history of bumpers clearly illustrates the increasing interest of the automotive industry for polymeric materials. As a result of the production process, polymeric materials offer a great freedom of design to the automotive engineer. The possibility to integrate many functions or (metal) parts in one complex plastic part offers a potential for weight reduction and a higher degree of automation in car production. Together with recycling and passenger safety, reduction of weight and production costs belong to the major topics in today's automotive industry. The continuous development and improvement of polymeric materials play an important rol. In finding new solutions to problems related to these topics and have opened the way to applications where higher mechanical of thermal requirements have to be satisfied. The involvement of computer aided design (CAD) and computer aided engineering (CAE) in an early stage of the development of such and many other applications is a key factor for success.
In the Eureka sponsored project CARMAT for example the feasibility of polymeric materials for application in the front end and boot floor of the Citro
Chemistry of EPDM vulcanisation
Martin van Duin, LANXESS Elastomers
Terpolymerisation of ethylene, propylene and a diene monomer results in EPDM polymers, which i) have a low glass transition temperature and are amorphous (or very low crystalline) at application temperatures and ii) can be crosslinked, and, thus, can be applied as an elastic rubber. Because of its low level of unsaturation in side groups, EPDM has an excellent resistance against oxygen, ozone, heat and irradiation. The apolar character of EPDM and the very high entanglement density explain the very high acceptance of plasticiser oil and, as a consequence, of carbon black. Combined with the very low density, EPDM compounds are among the most cost-effective rubber products. The apolar character also results in a poor resistance against oil and apolar solvents though. EPDM is the largest, non-tire, synthetic rubber (1100 kton/year) with main applications in outdoor and elevated temperatures, such as automotive sealing systems, window gaskets, roof sheeting, hoses, tires and tubes, mechanical goods, wire & cable and thermoplastic vulcanisates. Crosslinking of EPDM is typically performed with accelerated sulfur (~80%), sometimes with peroxide and, for special applications like thermoplastic vulcanisates, with activated resol systems. The current views on the chemistry of these 3 EPDM vulcanisation systems will be presented, supported by results from experimental studies using state-of-the-art analytical techniques. Recent developments by LANXESS, such as high-VNB-EPDM for enhanced peroxide curing efficiency and the use of zeolites to improve the cure characteristics of resol curing will be highlighted.
1) Developments in Stress Relaxation and Lifetime estimation test methods and instruments 2) Developments in low temperature testing and instruments
1) Developments in Stress Relaxation and Lifetime estimation test methods and instruments Stress relaxation tests are becoming more and more popular for determination of rubber properties. From the beginning stress relaxation tests were used mainly in scientific projects at universities, but a growing use has been shown in recent years and this may be caused by the introduction of stress relaxation tests in product standards, such as sealing rings for pipes. The automotive industry has also started to specify stress relaxation tests for critical sealing products in the cars. The latest requirements from the automotive industry is temperature cycling tests from subzero to elevated temperatures. This paper will describe the test methods, the instruments, test results and how to use the test data for lifetime estimations. 2) Developments in low temperature testing and instruments The low temperature properties of rubber materials are important in colder climates, such as that encountered in Scandinavia. The requirements for these properties have since long been included in specifications, especially those of the automotive industry. There are a number of test methods in use, the most common methods in Scandinavia is the Temperature Retraction Procedure, also known as the TR-test. This test is now also included in the new material specifications that have been developed by the Swedish Standards Institute. Another low temperature test is the Gehman test which measures the stiffness (modulus) at a range of temperatures. A problem with both these methods is that they are both very time consuming to perform however this is eliminated with automated instruments. This paper will describe what happens in the rubber material at low temperatures and review the most common standardized test methods for low temperature properties. The new automated instruments used for testing and the improved precision that can be achieved will also be discussed.
Development of a high molecular weight EPDM for engine mounts
Dr. Luca Vitalini Saccone, Polimeri Europa
In nowadays vehicles the engine mounts are subjected to increased temperatures due to a lower availability of empty spaces in the hood. Therefore the automotive industry is looking for alternative materials for substitution of NR. Polimeri Europa developed at lab scale a high molecular weight EPDM that shows good vibration isolation, mechanical and aging properties.
Hydrogenated Nitrile Rubber: Properties and Recent Trends in Application Development
J. Jobe, Rubber Business Group, Bayer AG
The unusual combination of properties of the Hydrogenated Nitrile Rubber (HNBR) opens a diverse spectrum of applications predominantly in the automotive industry. The properties of HNBR and the structure of the HNBR-market are discussed below. Special attention is paid to HNBR as base polymer in synchroneous belts. A high level of static and dynamic properties at operation temperatures, good retention of properties under continous heat exposure give rise to a significant improvement in the cost/performance relation for timing belts in cars. Some details are presented for HNBR with extended service temperature range. The low temperature side is remarkably improved by new grades, making new applications e.g. in seals and mounts accessible. As an example for new fluids causing a decision in favour of HNBR rapeseadoilmethylester is selected. In this area of application, HNBR finds it's place in seals and mouldings in fuel supply systems of cars.
High performance rubber in automotive applications
Mr. G.A. Albers, Vernay Europa
Modern cars do not function properly without the use of high performance synthetic rubbers fulfilling demanding and challenging requirements in critical systems and subsystems. Seen through the eyes of a rubber component developer, the specifics of several of these applications will be touched. Stringent EU and US legislation and regulation pose at the same time a threat and an opportunity to involved suppliers in the automotive new part development chain. The impact of these trends will be discussed.
Looking Forward, Zeon Acrylate Polymers for Air-Management Solutions
Stuart Harris, Zeon Europe GmbH
Topics: High performance TPVs / Heat and oil resistant TPVs / Super TPVs High Performance ACM Elastomers / Extrusion Capable Heat and oil resistant HyTemp Super-ACM Hot Turbo Charged Hoses / Blow Molded Air-Management Components Thermoplastic vulcanizates (TPV), copolyesters, poly-epichlorhydrin (ECO) and acrylate polymers (ACM / AEM) have found broad use in automotive air-management components. The sustained heat resistance of olefin based TPVs and copolyesters have limited their use in components requiring sustained, long-term exposure to temperatures above 135
New EPDM products with Keltan ACE(TM) technology
Herman Dikland*, Michel Dees, Martin van Duin, Chris Twigg, DSM Elastomers
In November 2008 DSM Elastomers successfully implemented Keltan ACE(TM) technology in one of its existing plants in Geleen, The Netherlands. Keltan ACE (Advanced Catalysis Elastomers) technology imparts the use of a new generation catalyst systems for the production of EPDM. This new technology allows for cost efficient production of EPDM. Moreover, the significantly lowered catalyst consumption and energy requirements contribute to a cleaner product and a cleaner environment. Equally important is the ability to produce innovative EPDM polymers that are currently inaccessible through state-of-the-art Ziegler-Natta and conventional metallocene processes. Recently DSM Elastomers launched its first Keltan ACE(TM) product, Keltan DE8270C, targeted for peroxide cure applications of EPDM. Peroxide curing of EPDM nowadays is applied for 15% of the world production of EPDM. Main applications are found in window gaskets, automotive hoses and belts, cable insulation and heat-resistant belts and seals. Keltan DE8270C is best characterized as an amorphous, high Mooney, hyper-branched product, containing 3 wt% of 5-vinyl-2-norbornene (VNB) as the diene monomer. Keltan DE8270C is the first product in DSM Elastomers
Optimalisatie van bestaand Silentblock met behoud van dynamische en statische eigenschappen
Jitze Stegenga, R&D Engineer, & Edgar de Graauw, Technisch Manager RIS-Rubber NV.
RIS-Rubber NV produceert sinds vele jaren diverse Silentblocks voor de Automotive industrie, toepassing o.a. voor veerelementen voor opleggers en schokdempers. De concurrentie bij onze klanten is erg hoog en ze eisen hoogwaardige silentblocks welke zwaar dynamisch belast worden met tevens een lange levensduur en ook nog tegen de aller laagste prijs. De vraag en opdracht van een klant van een bestaand, goed functionerend silentblock, was het design zo te wijzigen waardoor het nieuwe Silentblock goedkoper werd, echter met behoud van zijn dynamische- en statische eigenschappen en de levensduur. Tijdens deze lezing wordt uitgelegd welke stappen onze R&D afdeling uitgevoerd heeft om uiteindelijk een goedkoper silentblock te produceren met behoud van alle eigenschappen. Dit succes is niet alleen te danken aan de knowhow binnen RIS-Rubber NV echter ook doordat RIS-Rubber heeft ge
New thermplastic vulcanizates (TPVs) with improved processability for injection molding applications
Harry Lardinoye, Jan Tom Fernhout, Yundong Wang, Hua Cai, and Ryszard Brzoskowski, DSM Thermoplastic Elastomers BV , The Netherlands
A new line of thermoplastic vulcanizates (TPVs) has been introduced by DSM Thermoplastic Elastomers for injection molding applications where UV resistance is critical. This new line of products, consisting of several grades with hardness ranging from 50 to 85 shore A in black color, shows superior flow characteristics and balanced properties meeting existing automotive material specifications. In this paper, we will discuss some of the features associated with this new line of products. After a short introduction on injection molding, specifically for TPVs, some basic properties of these new products are discussed, like crystallization behavior and cycle time. Most of these grades are formulated with the intention to increase their rate of crystallization over other commercially available TPVs. This ensures a faster solidification of the melt upon cooling, leading to a reduction in cycle time. A processing guideline gives information on the processing window of these new materials. Also some examples of typical applications in the automotive industry as glazing and sealing systems are included. As a conclusion: These high flow products are formulated to have low viscosity for ease of flow and better surface appearance. Through composition and process optimization, this product line is designed to offer excellent UV resistance, good fogging properties, and good mechanical and elastic properties with superior processability and consistency.
Value creation between raw materials, system manufacturers and OEM
Alistair Hill, Meteor Gummiwerke, K. H. B
he greater part of the rubber processing industry produces products which are required for automotive vehicles and is therefore essentially part of the Automotive Industry. The developers and manufacturers of non-tyre rubber products, like many other suppliers, have experienced extreme hardship during the last decade. During the last decade the OEMs have transferred increasing responsibility for design, development and the quality of the required products. The rubber processor progressed from the manufacturer of relatively simple moulded or extruded parts to a designer and producer of multifunctional components and systems. On the other hand many OEMs have increasingly regarded these products as commodities and have made considerable moves to lower the price of many products through direct pressure on the suppliers as well as through global auctions. Some of the methods used are ethically questionable. In the
Rubber toepassingen in automotive- trends en ontwikkelaspecten
André Albers, Vernay Europa B.V.
Vernay ontwikkeld maatwerk oplossingen in nauwe samenwerking met haar klanten. Hierbij bestrijken we een verscheidenheid aan toepassingen in verschillende automotive marktsegmenten. Dit vergt een ontwikkelorganisatie die van vele markten thuis is.
In deze presentatie besteden we aandacht aan hoe Vernay hierop inspeeld en welke ontwikkelaspecten daarbij een rol spelen.
How automotive trends can effect the use of TPE materials
Ger L. Vroomen, Teknor Apex
The automotive industry is one of the biggest markets for TPE materials. For already many years the average TPE consumption in a vehicle is increasing. The question is: will this be the case in the coming years?
For the future the automotive industry is facing big challenges and some of them could have an effect on the use of TPE materials.
Will these major these challenges have an effect on the use of TPE materials in a future vehicle. This presentation will high light, with the use off a few examples, further grow opportunities for TPE materials in the automotive industry.
Estane® novelties in interior / exterior automotive parts
David Pascual, Lubrizol
Lubrizol engineered polymers provides innovative solutions in the form of highly versatile, easy-to-process polymers that can be converted by extrusion and injection moulding processes. Lubrizol seeks to introduce the latest novelties and current success stories within the automotive industry, as well as major breakthroughs focusing on cost-down solutions, lightweight, comfort and aesthetics.
Lubrizol’s extensive Estane® TPU includes a differentiated portfolio of solutions, such as:
The scope of Estane® engineered polymers crosses many end uses such as under the bonnet applications (high heat cables, fuel bowls, …), interior parts (central console, door panels, seats, gear knobs, shutter pads,...) and exterior parts (paint protection film, safety glass, glass lamination,…).
*bio-based content, plant-based, 29-70% as determined according to ASTM-D6866.
New Additives for the Processing of Special-Application-Elastomers
Schill+Seilacher “Struktol” GmbH has introduced Struktol HT 750, a new processing additive for diamine crosslinking polymers. AEM, ACM and HNBR can be challenging to work with, as the high additive loadings necessary for processing often compromise some of the rubber’s physical properties.
Struktol HT 750 was designed to overcome these negative effects, while also achieving excellent processing in both white and black filled compounds.
Diamine crosslinking polymers are common in the automotive applications and need to perform in a very demanding environment. In this setting the compression set, the permanent deformation in a material after an applied force is removed, is one the most critical physical attributes measured. When processing with silica filler, amino-silanes are typically added to
improve compression set, but negatively impact tensile strength and elongation at break.
In stark contrast to the status quo, Struktol HT 750 interacts with the silica surface and improves dispersion and compression set without sacrificing elongation at break and tensile strength.
Dai El - New Developments
Kay Varnhorn (presenter), Dr. Uwe Seebold (Author)
Daikin Elastomers (Dai El) complemented their product line.
New and advanced fluorine elastomers (FKM) are requested, in particular from the automotive industry, to meet future requirements. This presentation give a survey of Daikin’s recent developments in this field. The focus of this presentation is on new base and amine resistant peroxide curable FKM grades. In addition, a new generation of low fluorine peroxide curable terpolymers with a good balance of low temperature and chemical resistance properties, will presented.
Finally, a brief overview on the current FFKM portfolio will complete the presentation.
Rubber to plastic bonding of a valve poppet in an AdBlue dosing unit.
André Albers; Vernay Europa
Vernay Europa B.V. supplies amongst others assemblies for 1st tier suppliers to the automotive industry. An example of such an assembly is the supply module of an AdBlue dosing system for which Vernay developed rubber to plastic bonded valves.
The miniature size in combination with tight dimensional tolerances of these valve poppets creates a challenge to the manufacturing processes.
This presentation highlights the considerations related to the development of the rubber to plastic bonding system of the poppet.